"Regarding smoking history 128 participants had smoked: 96 were active smokers who had smoked more than 10 cigarettes-per-day in the three months prior to the study start, and 32 were former smokers who had smoked cumulatively for at least 6 months sometime in the past. Two hundred and forty (240) participants were not active smokers.
Whe MRIs from smokers and nonsmokers were compared it was found that smokers had significantly higher disability scores and lower brain volume than the nonsmokers.
Also, it was observed that a significant relationship exists between a higher number of packs-per-day smoked and lower volume of the brain.
Zivadinov said, "MS patients should be counseled to stop smoking, or at least to cut down so they can preserve as much brain function as possible."